to̞ːho̞ː pɺ̠o̞d͡ʑʲe̞ct, to̞ːho̞ː pɯᵝɺ̠o̞d͡ʑʲe̞kɯᵝto̞
Toho Project, Touhou Series, Project Shrine Maiden
Created by Team Shanghai Alice
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The Touhou Project (東方Project), also 東方プロジェクト (Touhou Purojekuto) or Project Shrine Maiden, is a Japanese doujin game series that specialises in shoot 'em ups by sole Team Shanghai Alice member ZUN. Generally, it's a series of 2D (with 3D background) vertically-scrolling danmaku shooting games, that also creates related print works and music CDs. There are also five fighting game spinoffs co-produced with Twilight Frontier, called "danmaku action games." The works of Touhou Project are sometimes called the Touhou Series (東方シリーズ Tōhō shirīzu) for convenience.
The setting of the Touhou Project lies in a haunted region of Japan called Gensokyo (幻想郷 Gensōkyō, lit. "Land of Illusions" or "Land of Fantasy), sealed away from the outside world by the Great Hakurei Barrier. Reimu Hakurei is the protagonist of the project, who lives at the Hakurei Shrine that lies on the said barrier. She, along with the secondary character Marisa Kirisame, set out to solve various incidents that happen throughout the land, mostly cause by youkai. With this, they're both youkai exterminators.
The land is mainly inhabited by humans and youkai alike, who live in their own regions. Humans mostly settle in the Human Village, whilst youkai can be found mostly anywhere, such as the Youkai Mountain, the Forest of Magic and Makai. Some species include magicians, beasts, vampires, ghosts, tengu, mermaids, and kappa. There are others species that could be youkai depending on definition, such as fairies, spirits, phantoms, vengeful spirits, poltergeists, hermits, oni and gods.
Originally in the PC-98 canon, it was simply called "The Eastern Country". Long before the Touhou Project 's story begins, there lived many youkai as well as some humans in the area. After a few humans lost their way into Gensokyo, humans became afraid of approaching this area, although others settled here for the sake of youkai extermination. However, as time went on, humans developed civilisation and multiplied in number, and thus the youkai became distressed about how this would affect the balance between humans and youkai. Thus, 500 years before the events of Embodiment of Scarlet Devil, Yukari Yakumo developed the "boundary of phantasm and substance", which was favoured by the youkai and protected the balance. This was called the "Youkai Expansion Project" and made Gensokyo a phantasmal world that automatically called out to the weakened youkai of the outside world. Other things that disappear from the outside world, like extinct animals, lost tools and architecture, also became abundant in Gensokyo. Since Gensokyo was a plot of land in Japan that was separated by a barrier, it is Japan that is immediately outside of this barrier.
As a result of the seal, Gensokyo became inaccessible from the outside world, and similarly, those in Gensokyo were unable to leave. Gensokyo's existence could not be confirmed from the outside world, nor could the outside world be confirmed within Gensokyo. As a result, the isolated community developed its own civilisation, different from that of the outside world. Although separated by a barrier, it is a bordering world to its outside, as opposed to being in a parallel universe. There are no seas in Gensokyo, since it is an inland mountain.
In present Gensokyo in all Touhou games since EoSD, as opposed to the outside world where unscientific phenomena were dismissed as "superstition" by the time of the Meiji era, magical and spiritual qualities prevail. The only known gateway from the outside world into Gensokyo is the Hakurei Shrine. The spell card rules were also established to keep up the relationship between humans and youkai, which is necessary for the preservation of the balance of Gensokyo. The Great Hakurei Barrier", managed by Reimu, was constructed in the year 1885, which is described as a "barrier of common sense" and is thus a strong logical barrier that not even youkai can pass through. The youkai were at first against its construction, but then gradually understood its usefulness.
In Gensokyo, incidents occur once in a while, where there's an event that affects all of Gensokyo with an unknown cause at the time it occurs. Touhou games mainly focuses on incidents in its stories, but there are also works such as Mountain of Faith that are about events other than incidents.
Frequently, incidents are due to a youkai's whim or curiosity, and usually Reimu (and on some cases others imitators such as Marisa) would go to investigate it to then find and punish the perpetrator. When a major incident occurs, the spirits and fairies are affected by the circumstances, the incident, and the perpetrator, and experience an increase in power for the duration incident, so there are also cases where a mere fairy can defeat Reimu. It has additionally been stated that people of the village also go out to resolve incidents.
The Touhou Project does use the Gregorian calendar, but since the moon is more important to youkai, there exists the "Youkai Lunisolar Calendar" in Gensokyo, and although it's not used except for some youkai, it features prominently in works that have dates, such as Bohemian Archive in Japanese Red. This calendar doesn't merely take into account the waxing and waning of the moon, but also its colour and the cycles of its edge, and has a 13th intercalary month called Uruu. The smallest unit of this calendar is the month, and the calendar era, called "~th season", goes through a sexagenary cycle. Embodiment of Scarlet Devil occurred in the 118th season, Immaterial and Missing Power and Perfect Cherry Blossom in the 119th, and Phantasmagoria of Flower View in the 120th. The opening of the "Gensokyo Chronicles" to the public was on the 121st season. This calendar is set such that the end of World War II is on the 60th season.
Name and Concept
Touhou (東方) means "Eastern" and can refer to some or all of the areas, cultures or histories within East Asia. Historically, the term "the Orient" was widely used to refer to trade goods, artwork, literature, other items or topics related to countries in East Asia such as China, Japan, Korea or Vietnam. Officially, "Project Shrine Maiden" is the term for referring the series in English, but the English-speaking community regardlessly calls it the "Touhou Project" like the Japanese do. According to the Music Room Special in Mystic Square, the naming scheme of 東方ＯＯＯ originally came from one of the first songs he composed for Highly Responsive to Prayers, called Touhou Kaikidan (東方怪奇談). With some exceptions, the title of games/books/CDs of the Touhou Project are all under the format as shown in the following table:
|Format:||Japanese main title||double byte space||double byte wave dash||single byte space||English subtitle||single byte period/full stop|
|Example:||東方紅魔郷||' '||'～'||' '||the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil||'.'|
In the Japanese community – along with the Chinese and Korean communities – the works are usually referred by the main title without the Touhou (e.g. Koumakyou (紅魔郷) for 東方紅魔郷 ～ the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil). For short, they're referred by their third kanji/hanzi/hanja (e.g. 紅). However for some titles, there are exceptions:
- Hisoutensoku → 天則 (Tensoku) or 則 (soku)
- Double Spoiler → DS
- Fairy Wars → Mostly 大戦争 (Daisensou); if abbreviation is needed, just 戦 is used
- Bohemian Archive in Japanese Red → 書籍文花帖 (Bunkachou)
- Perfect Memento in Strict Sense → (before SoPm) 求聞 (Gumon), (after SoPm) 史記 (Shiki)
- The Grimoire of Marisa → グリモア (Gurimoa)
- Symposium of Post-mysticism → 口授 (Kuju)
- Curiosities of Lotus Asia → 香霖堂 (Kourindou)
- Silent Sinner in Blue → 儚月抄 (Bougetsushou)
- Cage in Lunatic Runagate → 小説抄 (shou)
- Inaba of the Moon and Inaba of the Earth → Most commonly うどんげっしょー (Udon Gesshou)
- Music CDs are all referred by their full Japanese title, and Sangetsusei are called by "三月精" (Sangetsusei) + volumes.
In the Western community (English, French, Spanish, etc.), they're referred by their English subtitles (e.g. the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil). For short, they're referred via unofficial acronyms of the subtitles (e.g. EoSD). The leading "the" is sometimes omitted in the former, but always in the latter. Works without an English subtitle may be referred by their main title, as with Touhou Hisoutensoku (Soku) and The Grimoire of Marisa (GoM), or by their translated subtitle, as with Inaba of the Moon and Inaba of the Earth (IotMaIotE).
Described as "Touhou Series" isn't canon?
While some fans and many people who aren't fans call the Touhou Project as "Touhou Series" (東方シリーズ Tōhō shirīzu), ZUN himself has a tendency to avoid using this term. So quite a lot of (canon-inclined) fans consider it not canon and believe it's an inappropriate term. ZUN has given a reason to this in the after report of Gensou Denshou (幻想伝承). He said that he has been avoiding to use "series", because it's been established to have an image of "commercialism". He also said that Touhou is hard to be considered as a "series" - since system, story and characters are all unrelated per each work and only the worldview is same. But it should be noted that right after he said that he finished his line with: "...Well, it is a series though." making the audience burst out laughing.
The Touhou Project has a lot of aspects to Japanese culture throughout the series, like mythology, traditions and religion – most notably to the texts, the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki. It usually uses Japanese folklore and some traditions in storylines, and uses religion and mythology in characters. There are even a lot more links to Japanese culture, and they all come together creatively, making the series more traditional than modern itself.
Modern science and technology hold very little aspects in the Touhou Project, but has become quite common in recent material.
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- The Touhou Project was nominated for the 11th annual Media Arts Awards awards held by Japan's Agency for Cultural Affairs, under the Entertainment category. However, Wii Sports by Nintendo was given the Grand Prize award and the Touhou Project failed to win any awards.
- All of ZUN's print works of the Touhou world include all the characters re/appearing in the Windows series at least once showing that the Windows games have a direct connection to the literature.
- ZUN announced that the Windows era should be taken as canon towards the Touhouverse and that the PC-98 shouldn't. See Canon page for more information.
- The game Uwabami Breakers and the Seihou Project series have some relation to the Touhou Project, although they aren't part of it.
- "Most prolific fan-made shooter series". Guinness World Records. http://web.archive.org/web/20130424041751/http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-8000/most-prolific-fan-made-shooter-series/. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- Perfect Memento in Strict Sense: Reimu Hakurei
- Perfect Memento in Strict Sense: Human Village
- An after report of Gensou Denshou (Japanese).
- "2007 11th Japan Media Arts Festival Open form" (in Japanese). Japan Media Arts Plaza, Agency for Cultural Affairs. http://plaza.bunka.go.jp/open/works.html. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
- "2007 Eleventh Japan Media Arts Festival Award-winning Works". Japan Media Arts Plaza, Agency for Cultural Affairs. http://plaza.bunka.go.jp/english/festival/2007/. Retrieved 2008-02-29.