Makai as seen in Undefined Fantastic Object.
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Geography and People
The entrance to Makai is located in a cave in the mountains near the Hakurei Shrine. Makai itself is a land with a harsh and unearthly nature that makes it difficult to survive in, but youkai and some humans live and/or train their powers here regardless. It is filled with a toxic miasma which is physically harmful, but strengthens magical spells and seals, and can also make learning magic easier for a human. 
Much of Makai's terrain is a deep red color, but there are also extensive fields of crystalline forests and frozen fields. Many materials in Makai contain their own will, an example being the materials Byakuren Hijiri used to make her sutra scroll. 
Most of the events of Highly Responsive to Prayers occurred in Makai when Reimu Hakurei discovered a portal that had opened in her shrine. Almost the entirety of Mystic Square happened in Makai and in the last two stages of Undefined Fantastic Object, the heroine travels to Hokkai via the Palanquin Ship captained by Minamitsu Murasa. It's unknown if the last two stages of Story of Eastern Wonderland take place in Makai.
There's a number of settlements within Makai.
Ruins of Vina
- The Ruins of Vina is only seen in Makai route stages 10~15 of Highly Responsive to Prayers. Reimu encounters Elis here on the fifteenth stage. Nothing else is known about this place other than its name, which is listed in the results screen after beating the game.
- Pandæmonium (other spellings Pandaemonium/Pandemonium) is the fortress of Shinki, the creator of Makai, named in Mystic Square's manual. It seems to be constructed from a sort of crystalline material. The player visits the fortress in the final stage of the game.
- During the Extra Stage of Mystic Square, the heroines enter into a kind of wonderland, presumably created by Alice Margatroid. It's implied that it exists within Makai.
- Hokkai (法界) is, as Minamitsu Murasa describes it, tucked away in "a corner of Makai". Not much is actually known about it, but the heroine travels there in Stage 6 of Undefined Fantastic Object where the entire region appears to have been sealed, along with the monk Byakuren Hijiri.
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Ruins of Vina, part of Makai, as seen in Highly Responsive to Prayers. (Purple background)
Ruins of Vina, part of Makai, as seen in Highly Responsive to Prayers. (Brown background)
A part of Pandæmonium, as seen in Mystic Square's Stage 5.
Another part of Pandæmonium, as seen in Mystic Square's Final stage.
Makai on fire, as seen in Mystic Square's Final stage.
A part of the Wonderland, as seen in Mystic Square's Extra stage.
Makai (above Hokkai), as seen in Undefined Fantastic Object.
- Makai made its first post-PC-98 appearance in Undefined Fantastic Object, but none of its known residents were seen during the game.
- Various "PC-98" references was shown in within the Windows canon, such as fairies having their wings coloured similar to Shinki's and that Byakuren Hijiri has this spell card that's similar to one of Shinki's attacks.
- Byakuren Hijiri and Shinki are often depicted in fandom has having a relationship or acquaintance with each other, sometimes because of the same location and that fandom suggests that Shinki taught Byakuren some of her attacks like this spell card. The resemblance between Byakuren's and Shinki's danmaku could be explained by Shinki teaching her the pattern while she was in Makai.
- Koakuma is sometimes said to be originally from Makai.
- Undefined Fantastic Object: Marisa A's Scenario "The miasma usually makes it impossible to go there, but lots of interesting things have fallen into Makai."
- Undefined Fantastic Object: Marisa B's Scenario "Huh, it feels like it's easier to use magic now for some reason." "There's a miasma that's bad for your body floating about, but it makes magic stronger."
- Symposium of Post-Mysticism: Byakuren Hijiri. It is said that she made it to while away the free time she had while sealed in Makai. Many of the materials found in Makai contain their own will. Sorcerer's Sutra Scroll also has its own will, meaning other people are unable to handle it. In Gensokyo, such items are called "cursed". Therefore, the Sorcerer's Sutra Scroll is cursed.