Unknown, likely in the millions
Lord of Lunar Capital
Also known as Tsukuyomi-no-kami or Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto, Tsukuyomi is the moon god in Shinto. Tsukuyomi is the second of "three noble children" born when Izanagi-no-Mikoto, the god who created the first land, Onogoro-shima, was cleansing himself of his sins escaping the underworld and the clutches of his enraged dead wife, Izanami-no-Mikoto. Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto was then born when he washed out of Izanagi-no-Mikoto's right eye, Amaterasu, the sun goddess, out of his left, and Susanoo, god of the sea and storms, out of his nose. In another story, Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto was instead born from a mirror made of white copper in Izanagi-no-Mikoto's right hand.
The name Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto is a combination of the Japanese words for "moon; month" (tsuki) and "to read; to count" (yomu). Another interpretation is that his name is a combination of "moonlit night" (Tsukiyo) and a verb meaning "to look at" (miru). Yet another interpretation is that the kanji for bow (弓 yumi) was corrupted with the kanji for "yomi". "Yomi" may also refer to the Japanese underworld, though this interpretation is unlikely.
- Cage in Lunatic Runagate
Thousands of years ago, Tsukuyomi realized that Earth was an impure, blood-stained world, which was stealing life from all living beings. So, this sage left Earth and took with him his most trusted relatives, including Eirin Yagokoro, his elder who he relied on the most, and founded the Lunar Capital. The Moon lacked the impurities of Earth and those who took up residence there forsook any lifespan, meaning they were neither alive or dead, but because they are not truly immortal, still stand a faint chance of death of injury.
A few decades ago (presumably around the time of the Apollo project), Lord Tsukuyomi was shocked that the scientific community on Earth has realized the world is built on probabilities. The threat that the beings of Earth and their impurities may reach the Lunar Capital now exists, and the denizens of the Moon have been on alert since then.
Not much was known how close they are, however they both founded the lunar capital together, so they could have been in good terms. It's unknown if their relationship remains the same after Eirin's desertion.
- Tsukuyomi is only referred to as a sage, not a god in Silent Sinner in Blue. Assuming Amaterasu Oomikami (who clearly is a god in the Touhou Project) is Tsukuyomi's sister, this could imply Tsukuyomi is a god as well if they are related. Additionally, in Legacy of Lunatic Kingdom Kanako states the Lunarians are the same as the amatsukami, which indicates Tsukuyomi is also a god, even if it was unclear back when Silent Sinner in Blue was published.
- Amaterasu, who is Tsukuyomi's sister in Shinto mythology, isn't mentioned by name, but as "Lord Tsukuyomi's sister". She is implied to have sun related abilities in Cage in Lunatic Runagate Chapter 3, like Amaterasu does in mythology, as well as some relation with crows, who are the mythical Amaterasu's messengers. It is unconfirmed if she is the same being as the sun goddess Amaterasu. The sun goddess Amaterasu actually is mentioned several times in various official works, and is even summoned in chapter 16 of Silent Sinner in Blue by Watatsuki no Yorihime, a Lunarian, as a god with sun based abilities, easily defeating Remilia Scarlet. Despite this, no reference to her being the same person as Tsukuyomi's sister mentioned in Cage in Lunatic Runagate was ever made in the manga itself.
- For an example of Amaterasu's other mentions as a god, it is shown in Strange and Bright Nature Deity chapters 15 and 16 that Reimu performs an ritual on New Year's Eve every two years to suppress Lucifer (Amano-Kagaseo no Mikoto) (the Day Star, also known as the planet Venus) and welcome Amaterasu Ookami (the sun) into the new year. This ritual weakens the youkais' power for the next two years. She is also mentioned in Curiosities of Lotus Asia.
- In chapter 19 of Silent Sinner in Blue, the well-known myth about Amaterasu shutting herself away in a cave is revealed to be the incident where Lunarians first started using shimenawa ropes to influence Earth's history. Despite Amaterasu specifically being named, there was still no reference of an actual connection of her to the Lunar Capital. In that same conversation, it is also implied that the "heavenly gods" who took away Lord Daikoku's lands (the Kuni Yuzuri myth, explaining the origin of the imperial house of Japan) were the Lunarians. In the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Amaterasu was one of the grand architects of this scheme, but in Silent Sinner in Blue, her name is not mentioned in that part of the conversation. Thus, although Amaterasu and Lord Tsukuyomi's sister are both sun-based, and the Lunarians apparently were responsible for several things that Amaterasu was responsible for in Shinto myth, there is no direct confirmation that they are one and the same in Silent Sinner in Blue. As stated above, Legacy of Lunatic Kingdom arguably changed this.
- According to the Nihon Shoki, Amaterasu and Tsukuyomi originally "shared the sky", but had a falling out of sorts when Tsukuyomi killed the goddess of food, due to her offering him food that she had spit out (however, in the Kojiki version, it's instead Susano-o who kills an analogous goddess, and no such myth about Tsukuyomi is present - in fact, no mention of Tsukuyomi is made after he's born). Given that Yorihime initially mistakes a crow from the outside as one of Lord Tsukuyomi's sister's familiars, it's possible that Lord Tsukuyomi's sister also has her current residence outside of the moon.
- In theory, if Keiki Haniyasushin is meant to be the same as the mythical Haniyasu and Haniyamahime, and Eika Ebisu is the same as the mythical Hiruko, they both have the same father as Tsukuyomi.
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